PSA offers a broad range of human analyst-driven due diligence solutions. Whether part of a routine review of a third party or a scoped inquiry, our offerings scale from database and desktop to complete on-the-ground investigations.

An extension of our deep in-region and analytical roots, PSA’s core strength is in analyzing and contextualizing the information we gather. With offices strategically located throughout the globe, PSA provides regional and local context to information we collect by utilizing in-house, in-region researchers with deep knowledge of their respective jurisdictions. As a result, we currently support a range of US, EU and Global clients from every major industry in proactively managing risk.


PSA Open Source Intelligence (OSI) and PSA Enhanced Due Diligence (EDD) reports are the cornerstone of our global and regional third-party due diligence programs (3PDD).  Within a 3PDD program our due diligence efforts begin with the desktop-only research of the OSI and scale up to the in-language, on-the-ground research of an EDD.

An EDD can be further expanded by selecting and including additional investigative elements in an individual request. This includes site visits, a mapping of the full chain of ownership of an entity (“NO” or “UBO Mapping”), in-person or remote compliance/questionnaire interviews, and discreet information collection from well-placed local and industry specific human sources.

These options dramatically increase the effective reach of each engagement. This spectrum also works to empower clients to implement a risk-based approach, with due diligence efforts calibrated to each engagement’s jurisdiction, value, and other factors dictating compliance risk.


| Open-Source Intelligence (OSI)

  • Human analysts conducting desktop research
  • Collection of all electronically available public records and media
  • Machine-translated local language research
  • Research on one primary entity and up to two secondary individuals

Use Case: OSI Reports are effective for low-risk transactions and in jurisdictions with higher levels of publicly available information.

| Enhanced Due Diligence (EDD)

  • In-country, human led records collection and information gathering
  • Human-translated local language research
  • Research on one primary entity and up to four secondary individuals

Use Case: EDD reports are effective in jurisdictions that are considered to have medium to high levels of publicly available information.

| Additional Investigative Elements

  • Beneficial Ownership / Natural Ownership Mapping
  • Discreet Source Commentary
  • Site Visit
  • Further investigative elements as needed

Use Case: EDD reports can be tailored to fit varying risk profiles by adding some or all of these additional elements.


For larger, higher-risk transactions or matters of a more complex nature, PSA’s investigative team will propose a scope of work designed specifically to achieve a client’s information objectives. Typical investigative due diligence (IDD) reports address high risk transactions, partnerships taking place in opaque informational environments or where there is the potential to carry over potential concerns.

Cases include pre-IPO, pre-JV or M&A due diligence on counterparties with a complex risk position. Additional use cases include the detailed evaluation of significant and critical 3P agents and vendors in high risk jurisdictions. IDD reports differ from program due diligence in that they are not limited by a set of predefined processes.

The IDD’s fit-for-purpose methodology emphasizes human-to-human intelligence collection and the analytical abilities of our in-house team to inform and enable key client decisions.


An EDD on a Mediterranean-based energy services company revealed that its key principal had close ties to a national leader in Latin America. Further research on this link revealed that the subject entity was under investigation in the Latin American country for participation in a high-profile corruption scandal. A natural ownership map created for the subject entity revealed a convoluted ownership structure that was intended to mask the near-complete ownership of the entity by a handful of politically-exposed individuals.

An investment firm in a Caucasus nation was found to be part of a family business empire connected to the most powerful political leaders in the country. Not only was its commercial success completely dependent on the good political standing of the family, but this status was increasingly being challenged. On top of this, the company would likely expose its Western business partners to high FCPA risks and multiple sources alleged that the subject engaged in money laundering on behalf of government sanctioned-entities.

An inquiry into an African mining company revealed close ties between the owners of the subject company and a national leader. Sources interviewed as part of an expanded IDD investigation revealed the subject company’s reliance on government favors as well as the entanglement of its key principals in a range of ongoing high-profile scandals and national-level political disputes.

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